Tasawuf di Era Syariat: Tipologi Adaptasi dan Transformasi Gerakan Tarekat dalam Masyarakat Aceh Kontemporer

Sehat Ihsan Shadiqin

Abstract


Abstract: Since the implementation of Sharia law in Aceh in 2001, the idea of Islam has always been related to Islamic yurisprudence. This has denied the aspect of spirituality in Sufi order (tariqa) which is actually the root of Islam in Aceh. Moreover, Sufi order in Aceh is like ducking and disappeared from the surface. Does the inconspicuious Sufi order attributable to the implementation of Sharia law? The answer is no. This paper attempts to explore the patterns of adaptation and transformation of Sufi orders movements in Aceh after the great wave in December 2004. I look at three different examples of Sufi orders; First, the Tawhid Tasawuf Study Council (Majelis Pengkajian Tauhid Tasawuf; MPTT) Syekh Haji Amran Wali who represents the Naqshabandi al-Khalidi congregation (South Aceh and Banda Aceh). Second, the Tarekat Qadiriyah wan Naqsyabandiyah (TQN) which led by Tgk. Sulfanwandi (Aceh Besar and Banda Aceh). Third, the Naqshabandi al-Haqqani order led by Ustaz Zamhuri (Banda Aceh). I found several patterns of tarekat adaptation to policies and Islamic society's trends in Islamic law. MPTT Amran Waly tends to re-interpret the classical Sufism doctrines, which considered contrary to the Sharia. TQN Sulfanwandi takes spirituality service while maintaining the urban lifestyle. While Haqqaniyah Ustaz Zamhuri made a pattern of cultural arts adaptation to show his tarekat as part of the life pattern of classical Acehnese Sufi scholars. The three tarekat groups seem to emphasize more on aspects of religious spirituality as an inseparable part of the development of modern society. Or in other words, it remains religiously valid even though it is modern in worldly life.

Abstrak: Sejak penerapan syariat Islam di Aceh tahun 2001, ide tentang Islam selalu terkait dengan hukum Islam. Hal ini telah menafikan aspek spiritualitas dalam tarekat yang padahal merupakan akar Islam di Aceh. Apalagi kelompok-kelompok tarekat seperti merunduk dan tidak menampakkan diri ke permukaan. Namun, apakah kelompok tarekat benar-benar menghilang dari Aceh karena pemberlakukan syariat Islam? Kenyataannya tidak. Makalah ini akan mencoba menelusuri bagaiman pola adaptasi dan transformasi gerakan tarekat di Aceh pasca tsunami pada Desember 2004. Penulis mengambil tiga contoh tarekat yang berbeda; Pertama, Majelis Pengkajian Tawhid Tasawuf (MPTT) Syekh Haji Amran Wali sebagai representasi tarekat Naqsyabandi al-Khalidi (Aceh Selatan dan Banda Aceh). Kedua, Tarekat Qadiriyah wan Naqsyabandiyah (TQN) pimpinan Tgk. Sulfanwandi (Aceh Besar dan Banda Aceh). Ketiga, tarekat Naqsyabandi al-Haqqani pimpinan Ustaz Zamhuri (Banda Aceh). Dari penelusuran ini, penulis menemukan beberapa pola adaptasi tarekat terhadap kebijakan dan kecenderungan masyarakat Islam dalam hukum Islam. MPTT Amran Wali cenderung melakukan pemaknaan ulang atas doktrin-doktrin tasawuf klasik yang dianggap bertentangan dengan syariat. TQN Sulfanwandi mengambil pelayanan spiritualitas dengan tetap mempertahankan pola hidup masyarakat urban. Sementara Haqqaniyah Ustaz Zamhuri melakukan pola adaptasi seni budaya untuk menunjukkan tarekatnya sebagai bagian dari pola hidup ulama sufi Aceh klasik. Ketiga kelompok tarekat ini sepertinya lebih menekankan pada aspek spiritualitas agama sebagai bagian yang tidak terpisahkan dari perkembangan masyarakat modern. Atau dengan kata lain, tetap salih secara agama meskipun modern secara kehidupan duniawi.

Keywords


Tasawuf dan Syariat, MPTT Amran Waly, TQN Aceh, Haqqani Aceh, Tasawuf Aceh

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