FIQH FOR MILITARY SERVICE: Guidance for the Muslim Minority in Australia

Hyder Gulam

Abstract


The term ‘Muslim Minority’ is used to refer to those Muslims that form an Islamic community in countries where Muslims are neither the majority, nor form the governing polity i.e. non-Muslim lands. This paper introduces Islamic Law and Fiqh, before discussing the rights and obligations of the Muslim Minority in militar y ser vice. This paper then discusses the relevant ‘ibadah rulings (literally meaning religious rituals such as prayer, fasting) and how these may be practically applied in the context of ser vice as a loyal and effective sailor, soldier or airman. The Muslim minority and their militar y ser vice in Australia will be used throughout the paper as an illustrative case study.

Keywords


The term ‘Muslim Minority’ is used to refer to those Muslims that form an Islamic community in countries where Muslims are neither the majority

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Endnotes

Accessed at http://www.azizahchishty.com/portal/content/publication-reliance-believer- ramadhan dated 21 May 2013

See for instance Ali Gomaa, ‘An Introduction to the Fiqh of Muslim Minorities’, at http://

www.ali-gomaa.com/?page=scholary-output&so_details=216 accessed 19 May 2013.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ja%27fari_jurisprudence accessed 16 May 2013

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malik_ibn_Anas accessed 15 May 2013

Ali Gomaa, ‘An Introduction to the Fiqh of Muslim Minorities’, at http://www.ali-gomaa. com/?page=scholary-output&so_details=216 accessed 17 May 2013

Ali Gomaa, ‘An Introduction to the Fiqh of Muslim Minorities’, at http://www.ali-gomaa. com/?page=scholary-output&so_details=216 accessed 17 May 2013

The precise number of Muslims is not known because many do not declare their religious status for census purposes. It is believed this is an under-representation and that there has been considerable growth in the Muslim demographic over the last five years. See generally “Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade: about Muslims,†online: .

Islamic Council of Victoria, ‘FAQ: Ramadan’ at http://www.icv.org.au/index.php/background- info/ramadan accessed 21 May 2013

Ann Black, “Lessons from Singapore: An Evaluation of the Singapore Model of Legal Pluralismâ€,

ASLI Working Paper, No. 026, July 2012, www.law.nus.sg/asli/pub/wps.htm.

Hyder Gulam (2012), ‘The Historical Application of Shariah in Australia’, Al Wasat Newspaper (October 2012), at http://hyderg.wordpress.com/2013/05/19/al-wasat-october-2012-the-historical- application-of-shariah-law-in-australia/ accessed 15 May 2013

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makassan_contact_with_Australia accessed 19 May 2013 and see also ‘Ancient Discovery set to rewrite Australian history’, The Age 19 May 2013 at http://www. theage.com.au/national/ancient-discovery-set-to-rewrite-australian-history-20130519-2juck.html accessed 21 May 2013

European Council of Fatwa and Research at www.e-cfr.org/data/cat30072008113814.doc

(Fatwa Number 5, p.7) dated 19 May 2013

“There is no compulsion in religion. Verily, the Right Path has become distinct from the wrong path. Whoever disbelieves in Tâghût and believes in Allah, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that will never break. And God is All-Hearer, All-Knower†(Qur’an 2:256)

Hyder Gulam (2006), ‘Islam, Law and War, University of New England Law Journal Vol.3, http://

www.une.edu.au/law/journal/pdfs/2006-3-gulam.pdf, p.91, accessed 16 May 2013

Zijad Delic (December 2009), ‘Muslims & Citizenship: The Social Contract, Backed by Faith’, Canadian Islamic Congress Friday Bulletin at http://www.canadianislamiccongress.com/fb/friday_ bulletin.php?fbdate=2009-12-25

Ibid.

Ibid.

The Holy Qur’an commands the following in regard to contracts: “And fulfill every covenant. Verily, you will be held accountable with regard to the covenants.†(Qur’an, 17:34)

Additionally, God instructs believers: “O you who believe! Fully discharge (the obligations arising through) contracts.†(Qur’an, 5:1) And those who are blessed in God’s sight are “...those who truly care for their trusts (left by others in their care) and their covenants.†(Qur’an, 23:8).

Moreover, the Qur’an condemns those who break covenants, describing them as untrue to their faith: “It is not the case that every time they make a covenant, some party among them throws it aside. Nay! The truth is most of them believe not.†(Qur’an, 2:100)

Australian Department of Immigration at http://www.citizenship.gov.au/ceremonies/pledge/

accessed 19 May 2013

Zijad Delic (December 2009), ‘Muslims & Citizenship: The Social Contract, Backed by Faith’, Canadian Islamic Congress Friday Bulletin at http://www.canadianislamiccongress.com/fb/friday_ bulletin.php?fbdate=2009-12-25

Muhammad Khalid Masud, ‘Islamic Law and Muslim Minorities’, at http://www.academia. edu/732749/Islamic_law_and_Muslim_minorities accessed 16 May 2013

Ibid.

Ali Gomaa, ‘Obtaining citizenship of non Muslim countries: an Act of Polytheism?’, at http://

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Ibid.

Ali Gomaa, ‘Obtaining citizenship of non Muslim countries: an Act of Polytheism?’, at http://

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Ibid., p.81

Ibid., pp.81-82

Ibid., p.82

https://itunes.apple.com/en/app/ipray-prayer-times-qibla-compass/id288054534?mt=8 accessed 21 May 2013

JÄbir reported that, The Prophet (pbub), said: “I have been granted five things which were not granted to any one before me: and for me the earth has been made a mosque and a means of purification; therefore, if prayer overtakes any person of my community, he should say his prayers (wherever he is)…â€

which are no idols or pictures – see A Manual of Hadith, ‘Mosques’, at http://www.sacred- texts.com/isl/hadith/had08.htm accessed 22 May 2013

‘Guideline of Performing Ibadah (worship) at the International Space Station (ISS)’ at http://

makkah.files.wordpress.com/2007/10/a_guideline_ibadah_at_iss.pdf accessed 20 May 2013 and

‘Abd al-Rahman al-Jaziri , Islamic Jurisprudence According to the Four Sunni Schools: Al-Fiqh ‘Ala al- Madhahib al-Arba ‘ah-Volume I Acts of Worship, (Fons Vitae, 2009), p.666

Islamic Council of Victoria, ‘FAQ: Ramadan’ at http://www.icv.org.au/index.php/background- info/ramadan accessed 21 May 2013

Islamic Council of Victoria, ‘What is Halal?’, at www.icv.org.au/icvdocs/whatishalal.pdf accessed 21 May 2013

‘Guideline of Performing Ibadah (worship) at the International Space Station (ISS)’ at http://

makkah.files.wordpress.com/2007/10/a_guideline_ibadah_at_iss.pdf accessed 20 May 2013

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www.wired.com/science/space/news/2007/09/mecca_in_orbit from Wired, dated 26 September

accessed 20 May 2013

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22373/jms.v15i2.1776

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