MEMAHAMI KONSEP MAṢLAHAH IMAM AL-GAZALI DALAM PELAJARAN USUL FIKIH

Darul Faizin

Abstract


Maṣlahah is an expression of taking advantage and rejecting harm, but that is not what is meant by al-Gazali; according to him, taking benefits and rejecting harm is human’s purpose, and humans good will be realized by achieving his goals. But what is meant by maṣlahah is maintaining the purpose of the Shari’a (al-muhāfaẓah ‘ala maqsūdi asy-syarī’ah). When dealing with texts (naṣ) maṣlahah is divided into three; there is a problem that is confirmed by the text (maṣlahah mu’tabarah), there is a problem that is canceled by the text (maṣlahah mulgah), and there is a problem that is unconfirmed and not canceled by the text (maṣlahah mursalah). Maṣlahah mursalah, when seen from the needs, are divided into three levels; first, the primary level (ḍarūriyāt) in the form of guarding religion (hifẓu ad-din), soul (hifẓu an-nafs), reason (hifẓu al-‘aql), descent (hifẓu an-nasl), and property (hifẓu al-māl) ), the second secondary level (hajiyāt) and the third tertiary level (tahsīniyāt). Maṣlahah mursalah can be used as a proposition for istimbāṭ by considering three characteristics, namely, maṣlahah is primary (ḍarūriyāt), certain (qath'iyyāt), and general (kulliyāt). According to al-Gazali, the purpose of the Shari’a (maqāsid asy-syarī’ah) can be known through the Qur’an, Sunnah, and consensus (ijma’). Then every maṣlahah that does not function to maintain the objectives of the Shari’a which is understood from the Qur’an, Sunnah, and the consensus (ijma') is a strange maṣlahah (gharībah), that is, a maṣlahah that is not in line with the Shari’a action, then the maṣlahah cannot be made into the proposition of legal discovery (istimbāṭ).

Keywords


al-Gazali; maṣlahah; istimbāṭ

Full Text:

PDF

References


Āmidi. 1985. al-, al-Ihkām fi Uṣūl al-Ahkām. Beirut: Dār an-Nahḍah al-‘Ilmiyyah.

Bukhāri, Muhammad al-. 1422 H. Ṣāḥīh al-Bukhāriy, Tp: Dār Thūqi an-Najāh.

Gazali, Muhammad al-. 1413 H/1993 M. al-Mustaṣfa min ‘Ilmi al-Uṣūl, Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah.

Gazali, Muhammad al-. 1971 M. Shifā’ al-Galīl fi Bayāni asy-Syubhi wa al-mukhīl wa masālik at-Ta’līl, Bagdad: Maktaba’ah al-Irsyād.

Jawi, an-Nawawi al-. 1434 H/2013 M. Marāhu Labīd li kasyfi ma’na al-Qur’ān al-Majīd, Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah.

Juwayni, al-. 1411 H/1991 M. al-Burhān fi Uṣūl al-Fiqh, Beirut: Dār al-Jail.

Khalaf, Abdul Wahab. 1437 H/2016 M. ‘Ilmu Uṣūl al-Fiqh, Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah.

Manżūr, Ibnu. tt. Lisānu al-‘Arab, tp: Dār al-Ma’ārif.

Munawwir A.W. 1997. Arab-Indonesia Terlengkap, Surabaya: Pustaka Progessif.

Opwis, Falicitas. 2010. Maslaha and The Purpose of The Law; Islamic Discours on Legal Cange From The 4th/10th to 8th/14th Century, Leiden: Brill.

Qaraḍāwi, Yūsuf al-. 2008. Dirāsatun fi Fiqhi Maqāsidi asy-Syarī’ah baina al-Maqāsid al-Kulliyah an-Nuṣūṣ al-Juz’iyyah, Kairo: Dār asy-Syurūq.

Suratmaputra, Ahmad Munif. 2018. Filsafat Hukum Islam al-Ghazali: Maslahah Mursalah & Relevansinya dengan Pembaharuan Hukum Islam, Jakarta: Pustaka Firdaus.

Syaukāniy, asy-. 1421 H/2000 H. Irsyādu al-Fuhūl ila Tahqīqi al-Haq min ‘Ilmi al-Uṣūl, Riyaḍ: Dār al-Faḍīlah.

Ṭahhan, Mahmūd aṭ-. 1431 H/2010 M. Taisīru Muṣṭalaḥ al-Hadīṡ, Riyād: Maktabah al-Ma’ārif.

Zahrah, Abu. tt. Uṣūl al-Fiqh. tp: Dar al-Fikr al-‘Arabiy.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22373/jm.v9i2.5303

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Darul Faizin

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Membership:
       

The Jurnal MUDARRISUNA: Media Kajian Pendidikan Agama Islam (ISSN 2089-5127, e-ISSN 2460-0733) is published by the Center for Research and Community Service (LP2M) Universitas Islam Negeri Ar-Raniry Banda Aceh, Indonesia. The content of this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Copyright © 2019 LP2M UINAR or its licensors or contributors.