Early Child Marriage: Customary Law, Support System, and Unwed Pregnancy in Gorontalo

Sastro Mustapa Wantu, Irwan Abdullah, Yowan Tamu, Intan Permata Sari


The rate of underage marriage in Gorontalo is very high, even though religion, customs and state laws prohibit it. The results of the direct interviews conducted and the observations made indicate that poverty, low levels of education and matchmaking myths may have caused this increase. Furthermore, the increasingly high level of promiscuity and weakened socio-cultural ties have led to an increase in the number of extramarital pregnancies, and forced marriage is unavoidable to maintain the dignity of the community. It was discovered that most married couples do not wed legally until they have problems in their marriage and seek a divorce. Moreover, women must also be responsible for their life choices because this paper shows that poor service practices have caused underage women to be objectified by physical, social and symbolic violence. The unavailability of a support system from the government and society makes a partner rely on the kindness of his or her parents. Therefore, it was suggested that government intervention, in the form of prevention and support systems for underage married women, must be integrated with the role of the community and religious leaders.


Underage Marriage, Unwed Pregnancy, Customary Law, Support System

Full Text:




Amin, Sajeda, J. S. Saha, And J. A. Ahmed. “Skills-Building Programs To Reduce Child Marriage In Bangladesh: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal Of Adolescent Health, 2018. Https://Doi.Org/10.1016/J.Jadohealth.2018.05.013.

Badan Litbang Kesehatan. Laporan Riskesdas. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Kesehatan RI, 2010.

Badan Pusat Statistik, And UNICEF. “Kemajuan Yang Tertunda : Analisis Data Perkawinan Usia Anak Di Indonesia.” Unicef Indonesia, 2016. Https://Doi.Org/978-978-064-963-6.

Badan Pusat Statistik. Proporsi Penduduk Perempuan Usia 15–49 Tahun Yang Pernah Kawin Menurut Usia Perkawinan Pertama Di Provinsi Gorontalo Tahun 2015. Gorontalo: BPS Provinsi Gorontalo, 2018.

Brown, Gordon. “Out Of Wedlock, Into School: Combating Child Marriage Through Education.” The Office Of Gordon And Sarah Brown, 2012.

Burn J. & Evenhuis, M. Just Married, Just A Child: Child Marriage In The Indo- Pacific Region. Melbourne: Plan International Australia, 2014.

C.H.D., Fall, Sachdev H.S., Osmond C., Restrepo-Mendez M.C., Victora C., Martorell R., Stein A.D., Et Al. “Association Between Maternal Age At Childbirth And Child And Adult Outcomes In The Offspring: A Prospective Study In Five Low-Income And Middle-Income Countries (COHORTS Collaboration).” The Lancet Global Health, 2015.

Cancian, Maria, And Molly A. Costanzo. “Comparing Income-Shares And Percentage-Of-Income Child Support Guidelines.” Children And Youth Services Review, 2019. Https://Doi.Org/10.1016/J.Childyouth.2018.12.011.

Chari, A. V., Rachel Heath, Annemie Maertens, And Freeha Fatima. “The Causal Effect Of Maternal Age At Marriage On Child Wellbeing: Evidence From India.” Journal Of Development Economics 127 (2017): 42–55. Https://Doi.Org/10.1016/J.Jdeveco.2017.02.002.

Cislaghi, Beniamino, Paul Nkwi, Gerry Mackie, And Holly Shakya. “Why Context Matters For Social Norms Interventions: The Case Of Child Marriage In Cameroon.” Global Public Health, 2020. Https://Doi.Org/10.1080/17441692.2019.1704818.

Coller, Arthur Van. “Child Marriage - Acceptance By Association.” International Journal Of Law, Policy And The Family, 2017. Https://Doi.Org/10.1093/Lawfam/Ebx011.

Cramer, James C., And Katrina Bell Mcdonald. “Kin Support And Family Stress: Two Sides To Early Childbearing And Support Nnetworks.” Human Organization, 1996. Https://Doi.Org/10.17730/Humo.55.2.W1v80q3045250328.

Delprato, Marcos, Kwame Akyeampong, And Máiréad Dunne. “Intergenerational Education Effects Of Early Marriage In Sub-Saharan Africa.” World Development, 2017. Https://Doi.Org/10.1016/J.Worlddev.2016.11.010.

Desiyanti, Irne W. “Faktor-Faktor Yang Berhubungan Terhadap Pernikahan Dini Pada Pasangan Usia Subur Di Kecamatan Mapanget Kota Manado Factors Associated With Early Mariage In Couples Of Childbearing Age At Kecamatan Mapanget Manado City.” Faktor-Faktor Yang Berhubungan Terhadap Pernikahan Dini Pada Pasangan Usia Subur Di Kecamatan Mapanget Kota Manado Factors 5 (2015): 270–80.

Dorondos, Sherlin. “Perkawinan Anak Di Bawah Umur Dan Akibat Hukumnya.” Lex Et Societatis, 2014.

Efevbera, Yvette. “Experiences Of Early And Forced Marriage In Conakry, Guinea: An Exploratory Study.” Journal Of Adolescent Health, 2017. Https://Doi.Org/10.1016/J.Jadohealth.2016.10.391.

Eggebeen, David J., And Dennis P. Hogan. “Giving Between Generations In American Families.” Human Nature, 1990. Https://Doi.Org/10.1007/BF02733984.

Fadlyana, Eddy, And Shinta Larasaty. “Pernikahan Usia Dini Dan Permasalahannya.” Sari Pediatri 11, No. 2 (2016): 136. Https://Doi.Org/10.14238/Sp11.2.2009.136-41.

Fall, Caroline H.D., Clive Osmond, Dominic S. Haazen, Harshpal Singh Sachdev, Cesar Victora, Reynaldo Martorell, Aryeh D. Stein, Linda Adair, Shane Norris, And Linda M. Richter. “Disadvantages Of Having An Adolescent Mother.” The Lancet Global Health, 2016. Https://Doi.Org/10.1016/S2214-109X(16)30263-7.

Gibbs, Cassandra M., Amanda Wendt, Stacey Peters, And Carol J. Hogue. “The Impact Of Early Age At First Childbirth On Maternal And Infant Health.” Paediatric And Perinatal Epidemiology, 2012. Https://Doi.Org/10.1111/J.1365-3016.2012.01290.X.

Groot, Richard De, Maxwell Yiryele Kuunyem, Tia Palermo, Isaac Osei-Akoto, Clement Adamba, Joseph K. Darko, Robert Darko Osei, Et Al. “Child Marriage And Associated Outcomes In Northern Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study.” BMC Public Health, 2018. Https://Doi.Org/10.1186/S12889-018-5166-6.

Hastuty, Yulina Dwi. “Faktor-Faktor Yang Berhubungan Dengan Terjadinya Pernikahan Dini Di Desa Sunggal Kanan Kabupaten Deliserdang.” Averrous: Jurnal Kedokteran Dan Kesehatan Malikussaleh, 2018. Https://Doi.Org/10.29103/Averrous.V2i2.417.

Hofferth, Sandra L. “Kin Networks, Race, And Family Structure.” Journal Of Marriage And The Family, 1984. Https://Doi.Org/10.2307/352527.

Hogan, Dennis P., Ling-Xin Hao, And William L. Parish. “Race, Kin Networks, And Assistance To Mother-Headed Families.” Social Forces, 1990. Https://Doi.Org/10.2307/2579354.

Jain, Saranga, And Kathleen Kurz. “New Insights On Preventing Child Marriage: A Global Analysis Of Factors And Programs.” International Center For Research On Women (ICRW), 2007.

Jasinski, Jana L. “Pregnancy And Domestic Violence: A Review Of The Literature.” Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 2004. Https://Doi.Org/10.1177/1524838003259322.

John, Neetu A., Jeffrey Edmeades, Lydia Murithi, And Iman Barre. “Child Marriage And Relationship Quality In Ethiopia.” Culture, Health And Sexuality, 2019. Https://Doi.Org/10.1080/13691058.2018.1520919.

K.G., Santhya. “Early Marriage And Sexual And Reproductive Health Vulnerabilities Of Young Women: A Synthesis Of Recent Evidence From Developing Countries.” Current Opinion In Obstetrics And Gynecology, 2011.

Kamal, S. M.Mostafa, Che Hashim Hassan, Gazi Mahabubul Alam, And Yang Ying. “Child Marriage In Bangladesh: Trends And Determinants.” Journal Of Biosocial Science, 2015. Https://Doi.Org/10.1017/S0021932013000746.

Kidman, Rachel. “Child Marriage And Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparative Study Of 34 Countries.” International Journal Of Epidemiology, 2017. Https://Doi.Org/10.1093/Ije/Dyw225.

Kontesa, Insproneka. “Larangan Nikah Bagi Pasangan Berzina Sebelum Diberlakukan Hukum Adat Ditinjau Menurut Hukum Islam (Studi Kasus Desa Tanah Bekali Kecamatan Pangean Kabupaten Kuantan Singingi).” Universitas Islam Negeri Sultan Syarif Kasim Riau, 2015.

M.Nour, Nawal. “Health Consequences Of Child Marriage In Africa.” Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2006.

Malhotra, Anju, Ann Warner, Allison Mcgonagle, And Susan Lee-Rife. “WHAT THE EVIDENCE SHOWS Solutions To End Child Marriage Solutions To End Child Marriage.” Healthynewbornnetwork.Org, 2011.

Mourtada, Rima, Jennifer Schlecht, And Jocelyn Dejong. “A Qualitative Study Exploring Child Marriage Practices Among Syrian Conflict-Affected Populations In Lebanon.” Conflict And Health, 2017. Https://Doi.Org/10.1186/S13031-017-0131-Z.

Nasrullah, Muazzam, Rubeena Zakar, And Muhammad Zakria Zakar. “Child Marriage And Its Associations With Controlling Behaviors And Spousal Violence Against Adolescent And Young Women In Pakistan.” Journal Of Adolescent Health, 2014. Https://Doi.Org/10.1016/J.Jadohealth.2014.06.013.

Peterman, Amber, Jennifer Bleck, And Tia Palermo. “Age And Intimate Partner Violence: An Analysis Of Global Trends Among Women Experiencing Victimization In 30 Developing Countries.” Journal Of Adolescent Health, 2015. Https://Doi.Org/10.1016/J.Jadohealth.2015.08.008.

Petroni, Suzanne, Mara Steinhaus, Natacha Stevanovic Fenn, Kirsten Stoebenau, And Amy Gregowski. “New Findings On Child Marriage In Sub-Saharan Africa.” Annals Of Global Health, 2017. Https://Doi.Org/10.1016/J.Aogh.2017.09.001.

Poespasari, Ellyne Dwi. “KEDUDUKAN ANAK LUAR KAWIN DALAM PEWARISAN DITINJAU DARI SISTEM HUKUM KEKERABATAN ADAT.” Perspektif, 2014. Https://Doi.Org/10.30742/Perspektif.V19i3.23.

Qibtiyah, Mariyatul. “Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Perkawinan Muda Perempuan.” Jurnal Biometrika Dan Kependudukan, 2014.

Raj, Anita. “When The Mother Is A Child: The Impact Of Child Marriage On The Health And Human Rights Of Girls.” Archives Of Disease In Childhood, 2010. Https://Doi.Org/10.1136/Adc.2009.178707.

Raj, Anita, And Ulrike Boehmer. “Girl Child Marriage And Its Association With National Rates Of HIV, Maternal Health, And Infant Mortality Across 97 Countries.” Violence Against Women, 2013. Https://Doi.Org/10.1177/1077801213487747.

Raj, Anita, Charlemagne S. Gomez, And Jay G. Silverman. “Multisectorial Afghan Perspectives On Girl Child Marriage: Foundations For Change Do Exist In Afghanistan.” Violence Against Women 20, No. 12 (2014): 1489–1505. Https://Doi.Org/10.1177/1077801211403288.

Rumble, Lauren, Amber Peterman, Nadira Irdiana, Margaret Triyana, And Emilie Minnick. “An Empirical Exploration Of Female Child Marriage Determinants In Indonesia.” BMC Public Health 18, No. 1 (2018): 1–13. Https://Doi.Org/10.1186/S12889-018-5313-0.

Rumekti, Martyan Mita, And V. Indah Sri Pinasti. “Peran Pemerintah Daerah (Desa) Dalam Menangani Maraknya Fenomena Pernikahan Dini Di Desa Plosokerep Kabupaten Indramayu.” Jurnal Pendidikan Sosiologi, 2016.

S.M., Kamal, Hassan C.H., Alam G.M., And Ying Y. “Child Marriage In Bangladesh: Trends And Determinants.” Journal Of Biosocial Science, 2015.

Sakdiyah, Halimatus, And Kustiawati Ningsih. “Mencegah Pernikahan Dini Untuk Membentuk Generasi Berkualitas.” Masyarakat, Kebudayaan Dan Politik 26, No. 1 (2013): 35–54.

Salmah, Syarifah. “Pernikahan Dini Ditinjau Dari Sudut Pandang Sosial Dan Pendidikan.” Alhiwar Jurnal Ilmu Dan Teknik Dakwah 04, No. 07 (2016): 35–39.

Santhya, K. G., Usha Ram, Rajib Acharya, Shireen J. Jejeebhoy, Faujdar Ram, And Abhishek Singh. “Associations Between Early Marriage And Young Women’s Marital And Reproductive Health Outcomes: Evidence From India.” International Family Planning Perspectives, 2010. Https://Doi.Org/10.1363/3613210.

Sardi, Beteq. “Faktor-Faktor Pendorong Pernikahan Dini Dan Dampaknya Di Desa Mahak Baru Kecamatan Sungai Boh Kabupaten Malinau.” Ejournal Sosiatri-Sosiologi 4, No. 1 (2016): 194–207.

Stack, Carol. “All Our Kin.” In Ethnography And The City: Readings On Doing Urban Fieldwork, 2012. Https://Doi.Org/10.4324/9780203723807.

Stang, Etha Mambaya. “Faktor-Faktor Yang Berhubungan Dengan Pernikahan Dini Di Kelurahan Pangli Kecamatan Sesean Kabupaten Toraja Utara.” Media Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia, 2015.

Strat, Yann Le, Caroline Dubertret, And Bernard Le Foll. “Prevalence And Correlates Of Major Depressive Episode In Pregnant And Postpartum Women In The United States.” Journal Of Affective Disorders, 2011. Https://Doi.Org/10.1016/J.Jad.2011.07.004.

Triningtyas, Diana Ariswanti, And Siti Muhayati. “Konseling Pranikah: Sebuah Upaya Meredukasi Budaya Pernikahan Dini Di Kecamatan Pulung Kabupaten Ponorogo.” JKI (Jurnal Konseling Indonesia), 2017.

———. “Konseling Pranikah: Sebuah Upaya Meredukasi Budaya Pernikahan Dini Di Kecamatan Pulung Kabupaten Ponorogo.” Konseling Indonesia 3, No. 1 (2017): 28–32.

UNFPA. “Child Marriage In Southern Asia Policy Options For Action.” UNFPA, 2013.

Unicef. “UNICEF; Progress For Children: A World Fit For Children Statistical Review.” Unicef, 2007.

Walker, Judith Ann. “Early Marriage In Africa--Trends, Harmful Effects And Interventions.” African Journal Of Reproductive Health, 2012.

Warner, Elizabeth. “Behind The Wedding Veil: Child Marriage As A Form Of Trafficking In Girls.” American University Journal Of Gender, Social Policy & The Law, 2011.

Warria, Ajwang’. “Forced Child Marriages As A Form Of Child Trafficking.” Children And Youth Services Review, 2017. Https://Doi.Org/10.1016/J.Childyouth.2017.06.024.

Wilkinson, D. (1993). Family Ethnicity In America. In Harriette Pipes Mcadoo (Ed.) Family Ethnicity: Strength In Diversity. London: SAGE Publications, 15-59.

Wodon, Quentin, Chata Malé, And Adenike Onagoruwa. “A Simple Approach To Measuring The Share Of Early Childbirths Likely Due To Child Marriage In Developing Countries.” Forum For Social Economics, 2020. Https://Doi.Org/10.1080/07360932.2017.1311799.

World Health Organization (2014). Health For The World’s Adolescents: A Second Chance In The Second Decade. Retrieved January 9, 2019 From Http://Apps.Who.Int/Adolescent/Seconddecade/.

Wulanuari, Kanella Ayu, Anggi Napida Anggraini, And Suparman Suparman. “Faktor-Faktor Yang Berhubungan Dengan Pernikahan Dini Pada Wanita.” Jurnal Ners Dan Kebidanan Indonesia, 2017. Https://Doi.Org/10.21927/Jnki.2017.5(1).68-75.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22373/sjhk.v5i2.9573


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Sastro Mustapa Wantu, Irwan Abdullah, Yowan Tamu, Intan Permata Sari

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Samarah: Jurnal Hukum Keluarga dan Hukum Islam has been indexed by:

Samarah: Jurnal Hukum Keluarga dan Hukum Islam
P-ISSN 2549-3132
E-ISSN 2549-3167