Adsorption of Cadmium Metal Ions by a Physically-Chemically Activated Adsorbent From Candlenut (Aleurites Moluccana) Shells

Endy Setiawan, Muhammad Faisal, Mariana Mariana


Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is a pollutant that is highly toxic, dangerous to blood vessels, and bioaccumulative in water. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the kinetics and isotherms of cadmium ion adsorption using candlenut shell activated carbon. Adsorbents were prepared by chemically activating with 0.5M HCl, physically activating via pyrolysis at 700°C, and a combination of both methods. Adsorptions were conducted using Cd solutions with initial concentrations of 100-300 mg/L, at 100 rpm stirring, and contact times of 5-50 minutes. The chemical functional properties and surface morphology of the adsorbents were studied using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The characterization revealed that the adsorbent prepared by the physical-chemical activation method was the best and was used to test its performance in adsorbing Cd(II) solutions. The results showed that adsorption capacity increased with contact time and reached equilibrium at 50 minutes with a qm value of 12.6 mg/g. The adsorption process followed the Langmuir isotherm model with a constant of 0.14 and R2 value of 0.986, while the kinetic model was pseudo-second order with R2=0.999. The results demonstrated that candlenut shells are effective as adsorbent media for treating Cd(II) waste.

Abstrak: Kadmium Cd(II) merupakan salah satu bahan pencemar yang sangat beracun, berbahaya bagi tubuh dan mengalami biokumulasi dalam perairan. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji kinetik dan isoterm penyerapan logam kadmium menggunakan arang aktif dari cangkang kulit kemiri. Adsorben cangkang kemiri dipreparasi dengan tiga variasi perlakuan aktivasi yaitu aktivasi kimia dengan larutan HCl 0,5M, aktivasi fisika melalui pirolisis pada suhu 700°C, dan kombinasi kimia dan fisika. Adsorpsi dilakukan dengan menggunakan larutan Cd dengan konsentrasi awal 100-300 mg/L, pengadukan 100 rpm dan waktu kontak 5-50 menit. Adsorben dikarakterisasi menggunakan  Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) untuk mempelajari kandungan fungsional kimianya, dan menggunakan Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) untuk mengobservasi morfologi permukaan. Hasil karakterisasi menunjukkan bahwa adsorben dengan aktivasi kimia fisika menunjukkan karakteristik terbaik dan dipakai sebagai representatif dalam pengujian performa adsorpsi larutan Cd(II). Performa kerja adsorben ditinjau dari segi kapasitas adsorpsi terhadap waktu kontak dan konsentrasi awal larutan Cd(II). Selain itu, studi isotherm dan kinetika adsorpsi juga dilakukan untuk mempelajari mekanisme adsorpsi yang terjadi. Hasil eksperimen menunjukkan bahwa kapasitas adsorpsi meningkat seiring bertambahnya waktu kontak, dan kesetimbangan dicapai pada 50 menit dengan nilai qm sebesar 12,6 mg/g. Proses adsorpsi Cd(II) menggunakan adsorben cangkang kemiri teraktivasi kimia fisika mengikuti model isotherm Langmuir  model dengan nilai konstanta 0,14 dan dan R2 = 0,986.  Model kinetika adsorpsi ini adalah orde dua semu dengan R2=0,999. Hasil yang diperoleh membuktikan bahwa cangkang kemiri sangat efektif untuk dijadikan media adsorben untuk pengolahan limbah Cd(II).


Adsorption; Cadmium: Candlenut shells; Activated carbon

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Elkawnie: Journal of Islamic Science and Technology in 2022. Published by Faculty of Science and Technology in cooperation with Center for Research and Community Service (LP2M), UIN Ar-Raniry Banda Aceh, Aceh, Indonesia.

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