Tree Communities and Aboveground Biomass in the Submontane Zone of Ketambe Resort, Mount Leuser National Park, Aceh

Taufikurrahman Nasution, Muhammad Efendi


Abstract: Mount Leuser National Park is one of the largest conservation areas and plays important ecological and economic functions. To support forest management, it is important to gain current vegetation data. The sampling method of a 0.1 hectare plot was carried out on two sampling sites in the submontane zone of Ketambe Resort, Mount Leuser National Park, Aceh. The diversity of trees was not significantly different, while species composition was different. Site one was dominated by Syzygium spp. and Shorea platyclados, while site two was dominated by Altingia excelsa and Bridelia glauca. Lauraceae, Myrtaceae, and Dipterocarpace families dominated in both sites. Tree structures formed three strata and showed a good capacity for forest regeneration. The aboveground biomass of site one was higher than site two due to the presence of more large trees. Pioneer species, cultivated plants, a low average wood density, and low aboveground biomass indicated secondary forest characteristics in both sites. 

Abstrak: Taman Nasional Gunung Leuser merupakan salah satu kawasan konservasi yang terluas dan memiliki fungsi ekologi dan ekonomi yang penting. Data vegetasi terkini penting didapatkan untuk mendukung pengelolaan hutan. Metode sampling dengan plot 0.1 hektar dilakukan di dua lokasi pada zona submontana Resort Ketambe, Taman Nasional Gunung Leuser, Aceh. Keanekaragaman jenis pohon tidak berbeda secara nyata sementara komposisi jenis berbeda. Lokasi satu didominasi oleh Syzygium spp. dan Shorea platyclados, sementara lokasi dua didominasi oleh Altingia excelsa dan Bridelia glauca. Suku Lauraceae, Myrtaceae dan Dipterocarpace mendominasi pada kedua lokasi. Struktur pohon membentuk tiga strata dan menunjukkan kemampuan regenerasi hutan yang baik. Biomassa pohon di atas permukaan pada lokasi satu lebih tinggi dibandingkan lokasi dua karena lebih banyaknya pohon berukuran besar. Jenis pionir, tanaman budidaya, rata-rata berat jenis kayu dan biomassa di atas permukaan yang rendah mengindikasikan karakteristik hutan sekunder pada kedua lokasi.


secondary forest; biomass; conservation

Full Text:



Amelia, R., Rasnovi, S., & Harnelly, E. (2019). Population structure of Dipterocarpaceae species in Ketambe Research Station, Gunung Leuser National Park, Aceh Tenggara. Jurnal Natural, 19(1), 6–11.

Arellano, G., Cala, V., Fuentes, A., & Cayola, L. (2016). A standard protocol for woody plant inventories and soil characterisation using temporary 0.1-ha plots in tropical forest. Journal of Tropical Forest Science,28(4), 508–516.

Aththorick, T., Setiadi, D., Purwanto, Y., & Guhardja, E. (2012). Vegetation stands structure and aboveground biomass after the shifting cultivation practices of Karo People in Leuser Ecosystem, North Sumatra. Biodiversitas, Journal of Biological Diversity, 13(2), 92–97.

Cahyanto, T., Efendi, M., & Ramdan, D. M. (2020). Structure and composition of trees in mount Tilu nature reserve, West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas, 21(6), 2674–2680.

Cahyanto, T., Efendi, M., Shofara, R. M., Dzakiyyah, M., Nurlaela, & Satria, P. G. (2019). Short communication: Floristic survey of vascular plant in the submontane forest of Mt. Burangrang nature reserve, West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas, 20(8), 2197–2205.

Chave, J., Andalo, C., Brown, S., Cairns, M. A., Chambers, J. Q., Eamus, D., Fölster, H., Fromard, F., Higuchi, N., Kira, T., Lescure, J. P., Nelson, B. W., Ogawa, H., Puig, H., Riéra, B., & Yamakura, T. (2005). Tree allometry and improved estimation of carbon stocks and balance in tropical forests. Oecologia, 145(1), 87–99.

Chazdon, R., B., F., Capers, R., Salgado-Negret, B., Casanoves, F., Boukili, V., & Norden, N. (2010). Composition and dynamics of functional groups of trees during tropical forest succession in northeastern Costa Rica. Biotropica, 42(1), 31–40.

Chen, L., Xiang, W., Wu, H., Lei, P., Zhang, S., Ouyang, S., Deng, X., & Fang, X. (2017). Tree growth traits and social status affect the wood density of pioneer species in secondary subtropical forest. Ecology and Evolution, 7(14), 5366–5377.

Collins, N. J. (2018). Sumatran elephant Elephas maximus sumatranus density and habitat use in relation to forest characteristics in the Leuser Ecosystem, North Sumatra. Bournemouth University.

Colwell, R. (2013). Estimates: Statistical estimation of species richness and shared species from samples, Version 9.

Culmsee, H., Pitopang, R., Mangopo, H., & Sabir, S. (2011). Tree diversity and phytogeographical patterns of tropical high mountain rain forests in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversity and Conservation, 20(5), 1103–1123.

Dossa, G. G. O., Paudel, E., Fujinuma, J., Yu, H., Chutipong, W., Zhang, Y., Paz, S., & Harrison, R. D. (2013). Factors determining forest diversity and biomass on a tropical volcano, Mt. Rinjani, Lombok, Indonesia. PLoS ONE, 8(7), 1–11.

Global Conservation. (2020). Leuser Ecosystem, Sumatra, Indonesia.

Helmi, N., Kartawinata, K., & Samsoedin, I. (2009). An undescribed low-land natural forest at Bodogol, the Gunung Gede-Pangrango National Park, Cibodas Biosphere Reserve, West Jawa, Indonesia. Reinwardtia, 13(1), 33–44.

Hrdina, A., & Romportl, D. (2017). Evaluating global biodiversity hotspots-very rich and even more endangered. Journal of Landscape Ecology(Czech Republic), 10(1), 108–115.

ICRAF. (2020). Wood density.

Junaedi, D. I., & Nasution, T. (2018). Exotic epiphytes on tree ferns in Cibodas Botanical Gardens: The importance of light preferences and host characteristics. Journal of Tropical Life Science, 8(3), 243–249.

Kelman, C. C. (2013). Governance lessons from two sumatran integrated conservation and development projects. Conservation and Society, 11(3), 247–263.

Laumonier, Y. (1997). The Vegetation and Physiography of Sumatra. In The Vegetation and Physiography of Sumatra.

Laumonier, Y., Uryu, Y., Stüwe, M., Budiman, A., Setiabudi, B., & Hadian, O. (2010). Eco-floristic sectors and deforestation threats in Sumatra: Identifying new conservation area network priorities for ecosystem-based land use planning. Biodiversity and Conservation, 19(4), 1153–1174.

Magurran, A. E. (1988). Ecological diversity and its measurement. Princeton university press.

Mambrasar, Y. M., Damayanto, I. P. G. P., & Atikah, T. D. (2019). Rediscovery Sumatran endemic flora: Towards the establishment of data of biodiversity loss. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 308(1).

Margono, B. A., Potapov, P. V., Turubanova, S., Stolle, F., & Hansen, M. C. (2014). Primary forest cover loss in indonesia over 2000-2012. Nature Climate Change, 4(8), 730–735.

Margono, B. A., Turubanova, S., Zhuravleva, I., Potapov, P., Tyukavina, A., Baccini, A., Goetz, S., & Hansen, M. C. (2012). Mapping and monitoring deforestation and forest degradation in Sumatra (Indonesia) using Landsat time series data sets from 1990 to 2010. Environmental Research Letters, 7(3).

Mori, S. A., Boom, B. M., & de Carvalino, A. M. (1983). Ecological importance of Myrtaceae in an eastern Brazilian wet forest. Biotropica, 15(1), 68–70.

Motz, K., Sterba, H., & Pommerening, A. (2010). Sampling measures of tree diversity. Forest Ecology and Management, 260(11), 1985–1996.

Mueller-Dombois, D., & Ellenberg, H. (1974). Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. Wiley.

Mutaqien, Z., & Zuhri, M. (2011). Establishing a long, term permanent plot in remnant forest of Cibodas Botanic Garden, West Java. Biodiversitas, Journal of Biological Diversity, 12(4), 218–224.

Onrizal, O., & Auliah, N. L. (2020). Stand structure and carbon storage of Bukit Lawang’s tropical rain forest of Gunung Leuser National Park. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1542(1).

Poor, E. E., Jati, V. I. M., Imron, M. A., & Kelly, M. J. (2019). The road to deforestation: Edge effects in an endemic ecosystem in Sumatra, Indonesia. PLoS ONE, 14(7), 1–13.

Purwaningsih, P., Polosakan, R., Yusuf, R., & Kartawinata, K. (2017). Phytosociological study of the montane forest on the south slope of Mt. Wilis, East Java, Indonesia. Reinwardtia, 16(1), 31.

Pusparini, W., Wibisono, H. T., Reddy, G. V., Tarmizi, & Bharata, P. (2014). Small and medium sized cats in Gunung Leuser National. Catnews, 8.

Rahmah, R., Kartawinata, K., Nisyawati, N., Wardana, W., & Nurdin, E. (2016). Tree species diversity in the lowland forest of the core zone of the Bukit Duabelas National Park, Jambi, Indonesia. Reinwardtia, 15(1), 11.

Rantona, S., Soekotjo, O., Bakti, I., & Agustin, H. (2019). Deforestation of the Leuser ecosystem : Environmental And Poverty In Aceh. April 2019, 14–16.

Reddy, C. S., Babar, S., Amarnath, G., & Pattanaik, C. (2011). Structure and floristic composition of tree stand in tropical forest in the Eastern Ghats of northern Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of Forestry Research, 22(4), 491–500.

Richards, P. W. (1997). The Tropical Rain Forest, an Ecological Study, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Rozak, A., Astutik, S., Mutaqien, Z., Widyatmoko, D., Sulistyawati, E. (2017). Hiperdominansi jenis dan biomassa pohon di Taman Nasional Gunung Gede Pangrango, Indonesia. Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan, 11(1), 85.96.

Samsoedin, I., & Heriyanto, N. M. (2010). Struktur dan komposisi hutan pamah bekas tebangan ilegal di kelompok Hutan Sei Lepan, Sei Serdang, Taman Nasional Gunung Leuser, Sumatera Utara. Jurnal Penelitian Hutan Dan Konservasi Alam, 7(3), 299–314.

Siregar, M., & Undaharta, N. K. E. (2018). Tree standing dynamics after 30 years in a secondary forest of Bali, Indonesia. Biodiversitas, 19(1), 22–30.

Slik, J. W. F., Bernard, C. S., Breman, F. C., Van Beek, M., Salim, A., & Sheil, D. (2008). Wood density as a conservation tool: Quantification of disturbance and identification of conservation-priority areas in tropical forests. Conservation Biology, 22(5), 1299–1308.

Slik, J. W. F., Paoli, G., Mcguire, K., Amaral, I., Barroso, J., Bastian, M., Blanc, L., Bongers, F., Boundja, P., Clark, C., Collins, M., Dauby, G., Ding, Y., Doucet, J. L., Eler, E., Ferreira, L., Forshed, O., Fredriksson, G., Gillet, J. F., … Zweifel, N. (2013). Large trees drive forest aboveground biomass variation in moist lowland forests across the tropics. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 22(12), 1261–1271.

Sulistyawati, E., Nasution, T., Rosleine, D., & Putra, D. C. (2018). Tree community structure and composition of a one-hectare permanent plot in the montane zone of Mount Kerinci, Kerinci Seblat national park, Jambi. Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences, 50(3), 315–331.

TNGL. (2020). Taman National Gunung Leuser.

Tsujino, R., Yumoto, T., Kitamura, S., Djamaluddin, I., & Darnaedi, D. (2016). History of forest loss and degradation in Indonesia. Land Use Policy, 57, 335–347.

Yamada, I. (1975). Forest ecological studies of the montane forest of Mt. Pangrango, West Java. Japanese Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 13(3), 402–426.

Yorks, T., & Dabydeen, S. (1998). Modification of the Whittaker Sampling Technique to assess plant diversity in forested natural areas. Natural Areas Journal, 18, 185–189.

Zuhri, M., & Mutaqien, Z. (2013). The Spread of non-native plant species collection of Cibodas Botanical Garden into Mt. Gede Pangrango National Park. Journal of Tropical Life Science, 3(2), 74–82.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Taufikurrahman Nasution, Muhammad Efendi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

P-ISSN : 2460-8912
E-ISSN : 2460-8920


Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Elkawnie: Journal of Islamic Science and Technology in 2022. Published by Faculty of Science and Technology in cooperation with Center for Research and Community Service (LP2M), UIN Ar-Raniry Banda Aceh, Aceh, Indonesia.

View full page view stats report click here

Flag Counter