Imam Khasbani


The globalization phenomenon marked by the flow of people movements, the advancement of informational technology, and the shrinking price of transportation has brought people around the world into one global community. Comprised by people from diverse linguistic backgrounds, this community sees the need to use a common language to bridge the communication gap. With a long-established economic and political power, English comes to the forefront as a global lingua franca. With its growing and pervasive influence, the need to learn English has never become more apparent. This need is often translated by government into language-in-education policy. This paper, to start with, will observe how language policy and globalization build a causal relationship. In the section that follows, language-in-education policy in Indonesian context will be presented. The following part will move on to discuss the use of EMI in Sekolah Berstandar Internasional (SBI)-International Standard School in Indonesia. In the end, a reflection and conclusion of EMI in Indonesia context will be discussed. In doing so, this paper employs literature study approach to explore the EMI practice in Indonesian schools. All relevant information was collected from several sources such as books and journal articles. The information was then utilised to build on discussions on existing theoretical framings, language policy and globalization, and on language-in-education policy and practice in Indonesia.


English as medium of instruction; Sekolah Berstandar Internasional; Language policy; language-in-education policy; globalization

Full Text:



Al-Mahrooqi, R. (2012). English Communication Skills: How Are They Taught at Schools and Universities in Oman? English Language Teaching, 5(4), 124-130.

Bialystok, E. (1978). A Theoritical Model of Second Language Learning. Language Learning, 28(1), 69-83.

Bowers, R. (1995). You Can Never Plan the Future by the Past: Where do We Go with English? In A. Bamgbose, A. Banjo, & A. Thomas (Eds.), New Englishes: West African Perspective (pp. 87-112). Ibadan: Mosuro.

British Council. (2004). English as a Medium of Instruction- a Growing Phenomenon Phase 1, [online] Available at https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/e552/73e4c948682fd88497090aaddabcce76ec1f.pdf [Accessed 1 Dec. 2017].

Brown, H., & Lee, H. (2015). Teaching by Principles. New York: Pearson Education, Inc.

Collins, J., Slembrouck, S., & Baynham, M. (2009). Globalization and Language in Contact: Scale, Migration, and Communicative Practices. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Dearden, J. (2014). English as a Medium of Instruction- a Growing Global Phenomenon. British Council

Guillén, M. (2001). Is Globalization Civilizing, Destructive or Feeble? A Critique of Five Key Debates in the Social Science Literature, 27(1), Annual Review, 235-260.

Guo, Y., & Beckett, G. H. (2007). The Hegemony of English as a Global Language: Reclaiming Local Knowledge and Culture in China, 40(1), Convergence, 117-131.

Hannigan , T. (2015). A Brief History of Indonesia: Sultan, Spices, and Tsunamis: The Incredible Story of Southeast Asia's Largest Nation. Hongkong : Tuttle Publishing.

He, J.-J., & Chiang, S.-Y. (2016). Challenges to English-medium Instruction (EMI) for International Students in China: A Learners' Perspective, 32(4), English Today , 63-67.

Held, D., McGrew, A., Goldblatt, D., & Perraton, J. (1999). Global Transformations. Standford: Standford University Press.

Hendarman. (2011). Kajian Terhadap Keberadaan dan Pendanaan Rintisan Sekolah. Jurnal Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, 17(4), 373-382.

Higgins, C. (2003). "Ownership" of English in the Outer Circle: An Alternative to the NS-NNS Dichotomy. TESOL Quarterly, 37(4), 615-644.

Hymes, D. (1997). Foundations in Sociolinguistics: An Ethnographic Approach. London: Tavistock Publications Limited.

Indonesia Ministry of Education and Culture. (2009). Penyelenggaraan Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional pada Jenjang Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah. Jakarta, Indonesia: Author.

International Baccalaureate®. (2017). INDONESIA. [online] Available at: http://www.ibo.org/about-the-ib/the-ib-by-country/i/indonesia/ [Accessed 4 Dec.2017].

Kachru, B. B. (2005). Asian Englishes: Beyond the Canon. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Kyeyune, R. (2003). Challenges of Using English as a Medium of Instruction in Multilingual Contexts: A View from Ugandan Classrooms. Language, Culture, and Curriculum, 16(2), 173-184.

Lauder, A. (2008). The Status and Function of English in Indonesia: A Review of Key Factors. Makara Sosial Humaniora, 12(1), 9-20.

Llurda, E. (2004). Non-native-speaker Teachers and English as an International Language. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 14(3), 314-323.

Lowenberg, P. (1994). The Forms and Functions of English as an additional Language: The Case of Indonesia. In A. Hassan, Language Planning in Southeast Asia (pp. 230-248). Selangor, Malaysia: Percetakan Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Ma'arif , S. (2011). Rintisan Sekolah Berstandar Internasional: Antara Cita dan Fakta. Walisongo, 19(2), 399-428.

Mcluhan, M. (1994). Understanding Media. Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

Owu-Ewie, C., & Eshun, E. (2015). The Use of English as Medium of Instruction at the Upper Basic Level (Primary Four to Junior High School) in Ghana: From Theory to Practice. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(3), 72-82.

Pennycook, A. (1994). The Cultural Politics of English as an International Language. Harlow: Pearson Education.

Philipson, R. (2009). Linguistic Imperialism Continued. Hyderabad: Orient Blackswan Private Limited.

Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic Imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ricento, T. (2000). Ideology, Politics and Language Policies: Introduction. In T. Ricento, Ideology, Politics, and Language Policies: Focus on English (pp. 1-8). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Ricento, T. (2006). An Introduction to Language Policy: Theory and Method. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing.

Schiffman, H. (1996). Linguistics Culture and Language Policy. New York: Routledge.

Seargeant, P. (2011). English in Japan in the Era of Globalization. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Singh, N., Zhang, S., & Besmel, P. (2012). Globalisation and Language Policies of Multilingual Societies: Some Case Studies of Southeast Asia. RBLA, Belo Horizonte, 12(2), 349-380.

Sklair, L. (1994). Capitalism & Development. London: Routledge.

Spencer-Oatey, H., & Franklin, P. (2009). Intercultural Interaction: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Intercultural Communication. Hampshire : Palgrave Macmillan.

Spolsky, B. (2004). Language Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sullivan, N., & Schatz, R. (2009). Effects of Japanese National Identification on Attitudes Toward Learning English and Self-assessed English Proficiency. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 33(6), 486-497.

Tanner, N. (1967). Speech and Society among the Indonesian Elite: A Case Study of a Multilingual Community. Anthropological Linguistics, 9(3), 15-40.

The World Bank. (2007). Investing in Indonesia's Education: Allocation, Equity, and Efficiency of Public Expenditures. Washington: The World bank.

Tollefson, J. (2013). Language Policies in Education (Second ed.). New York: Routledge.

Walkinshaw, I., & Oanh, D. (2014). Native and Non-Native English Language Teachers: Student Perceptions in Vietnam and Japan. SAGE Open, 4(2), 1-9.

Wright, S. (2004). Language Policy and Language Planning. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Xue, J., & Zuo, W. (2013). English Dominance and Its Influence on International Communication. Theory and Practice in Language Study, 3(12), 2262-2266.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22373/ej.v6i2.4506


  • There are currently no refbacks.

This journal has been viewedtimes.
View full page view stats report here.

All works are licensed under CC-BY

Englisia Journal
© Author(s) 2019.
Published by Center for Research and Publication UIN Ar-Raniry and Department of English Language Education UIN Ar-Raniry.

Indexed by: